The Treaty of Berlin was a complete blow to the Ottoman diplomacy. The Congress also signified that the Ottoman Empire could no longer take British commitment for granted, and was forced to face a powerful Russia and continuing separatist movements in all sides of the Empire.
The new Sultan Abdülhamit took the British and the Tanzimat bureuacrats responsible for the disaster. The Eastern Question was on the table once again, and this time the stakes were high. Britain took first Cyprus then Egypt and Sudan though on paper since 1914 they were Ottoman provinces. The former principalities of Bulgaria was divided into three parts, principality of bulgaria, autonomous East Rumelia, and Ottoman Macedonia. Bosnia-Herzegovina and Novi Sancak was annexed by the Austri-Hungary.
The Congress was also the very apogee of Bismarck. The Pax-Britannica was slowly fading away, and Germany realised that it can no longer stay aloof as a satisfied power in the extremely fragile international order. The demise of the Pax-Britannica meant the demise of the former agreed norms and rules on the Ottoman Empire. With the rising tide of colonial imperialism, the Eastern Question could no longer be left unsolved. However, following the Congress, the Sultan sidelined the Sublime Porte and began to rule the Empire from his Yildiz Palace. Abdulhamit attempted to change the form of state, that of a subordinate bureaucracy sided with the Levantine population and the foreign investors, plus the comprador Greek and Armenian merchants and investors, noting the Galata bankers. Instead, Abdulhamit tried to establish a “hobbesian state” aimed at creating a loyal bureaucracy which would at times play crucial roles.
This article will be about the Levantine population and heritage in Izmir
The photo is taken from
Ottoman Empire took its first foreign loan during the Crimean War of 1853-1856. In order to understand the very reason of this action we have to analyse the background which entails a study of the world order during the 19th century, the internal dynamics of the Ottoman Empire, the social actors and their division of labour within the administration.
We will follow Robert Cox’s writings on the “Pax Britannica” to give a background information on the world order during this time. Accordingly, this historical structure was indeed a hegemonic one.
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